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Old 13th July, 2008, 11:55 PM
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Kingston 4GB DDR2-1066 HyperX Memory

TechwareLabs show us if this memory really lives up to its name:

Kingston Technology Company, Inc. is one of the larger well known memory manufacturers. With years of experience under their belt, they have been perfecting memory to work at peak performance. Since the release of the HyperX line in 2002, they have been designing memory to meet the highest of gaming demands. Lets see how well Kingston 4GB kit of DDR2-1066 HyperX Memory actually performs.

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Kingston 4GB DDR2-1066 HyperX Memory
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Old 21st July, 2008, 08:25 PM
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This is probably a silly question. If you have two 2 Gb sticks of this DDR2 installed on a Intel processor mainboard, does 32-bit XP read 1.5 Gb on each side of the twinned sticks? If so, is 3Gb effective total RAM worth having compared to 2 Gb total?
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Old 22nd July, 2008, 03:47 AM
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It would depend on how the hardware is set up. If it is doing interleaved access (essentially, running in dual channel mode) then it would read 1.5 GB from each stick.

However, you can't run 3 GB of RAM on 32-bit XP without making a change in the kernel configuration, and to do so you have to constrain the OS to doing a lot of stuff in the remaining 1 GiB of upper memory space. If you routinely run a significant number of apps, this cause cause problems with the non-pagable resource pool IIRC, as well as colliding with the PCI memory space. In addition, some device drivers are known to throw their toys out of the pram on systems with more than 2 GiB of physical memory (I've heard rumors that nVidia's 32-bit drivers fall into this category since the 7x.yy series, though I've no personal knowledge if this is true).
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Old 22nd July, 2008, 08:31 PM
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Kernel configuration change? Why it's a snap in a MS OS. Does this mean that 4 Gb of RAM is wasted in a 32-bit XP box?
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Old 31st July, 2008, 11:04 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by cloasters View Post
Kernel configuration change? Why it's a snap in a MS OS. Does this mean that 4 Gb of RAM is wasted in a 32-bit XP box?
I'll leave it to the more tech savvy in the thread. But my understanding is a 32bit OS can only see 4gb or more if you enable the /PAE switch (and your chipset supports it).

Mathematics dictates a 32bit OS can read:

2^32 = 4,294,967,296

which is:

4,294,967,296 / (1,024 x 1,024) = 4,096

However, I think, because a 32bit OS can only read 4,096 of RAM total, CPU and HDD cache, video card RAM etc etc is included in that 4,096mb.

If that makes sense.
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Old 31st July, 2008, 04:31 PM
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There are a couple of different ways to get past the 4 GiB 'limit' on Windows.
  1. Set the /3GB switch in your boot.ini file as documented here: Memory Support and Windows Operating Systems. (This is called 4-GiB Tuning in some Microsoft literature.) Note that this doesn't automatically give applications access to 3 GiB of memory unless they also have a specific bit set in the application's header. This is due to the fact that many applications will break when presented with an address space larger than 2 GiB, because of sign extension issues (memory addresses less than 2 GiB have the high-order bit of the 32-bit address cleared, while memory addresses of 2 GiB and above have the high-order bit of the 32-bit address set. Since this is also known as the 'sign bit', some applications incorrectly interpret this as being a negative address and do Bad Things). In addition, the extra GiB of memory has to come from somewhere. In this case, it comes from the memory that is allocated to kernel mode processes and accesses. In particular, enabling this switch can result in conflicts with the PCI address space, and may result in the disabling or malfunctioning of certain hardware. In addition, the system NonPaged Pool (memory used by device drivers) gets dramatically reduced, as well as the System Page Table Entry memory area (used to track stack memory allocated by kernel processes). Both of these can have adverse effects on the performance of the system under heavy loads.
  2. Enable the Physical Address Extensions (PAE) by setting the /PAE switch in Boot.Ini as documented here: Large memory support is available in Windows Server 2003 and in Windows 2000. This allows an application to address up to 64 GiB of physical memory using the Address Windowing Extensions API in Windows. Note that applications have to be specifically written to take advantage of PAE by using the AWE API. AWE is essentially like the old Extended Memory under DOS: an application allocates a portion of its address space to serve as a 'window' into the larger PAE address space. There can also be issues with PAE and device drivers on 64-bit systems: in order for PAE to work properly, the PCI expansion cards have to be able to handle 64-bit addresses, meaning that 32-bit PCI cards must be able to support the Dual Address Cycle (DAC) command. Not all devices support this properly, and this cause cause havoc in a system. As a result, Windows will disable PAE on systems if it determines that one or more the PCI devices cannot properly handle the DAC command.
Note that, in both cases, Windows itself can make use of the additional memory, but that applications have to specifically written to make use of it. In addition, note that neither 4-GiB Tuning or PAE are required or enabled on 64-bit versions of Windows.

Additional reading:
A description of the 4 GB RAM Tuning feature and the Physical Address Extension parameter
4-Gigabyte Tuning (Windows)
Ask the Performance Team : Memory Management - Demystifying /3GB
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system...AE/PAEdrv.mspx
How to Configure the Paged Address Pool and System Page Table Entry Memory Areas
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